Scientific Program

Day 1 :

  • Veterinary Microbiology
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate drug resistance profile of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk, fresh fruit juice and dairy farms settings of Mekelle, Tigray. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the total 258 samples of raw cow milk and fresh fruit juice. Antimicrobial resistance status was also checked for identified S. aureus using various commonly used antimicrobial discs. The overall viable staphylococcal count mean and standard deviation of samples from milk shop, fruit juice and dairy milk were found to be 8.86±107, 7.2 × 107, 8.65±107 cfu/ml, 33.87±106, 6.68±106 and 22.0±106, respectively. Among the total 258 samples, 75 (29.07%) samples were found positive for S. aureus. Proportion of the isolation from milk shop, fruit juice and dairy milk samples were 20 (23.26%), 32 (37.21%) and 23 (26.74%), respectively. Antimicrobial test of the high resistance revealed vancomycin (100%), ampicillin (90.9%). ciprofloxacin (90.9%), ceftaroline (63.6%), penicillin-G (81.8%) and clindamycin (72.7%) whereas they are highly susceptible to some antibiotics like gentamicin (100%), streptomycin (81.8%), norfloxacin (63.6%), chloramphenicol (81.8%), sulfamethoxazole (96%), kanamycin (72.7%), polymixin B (72.7%), erythromycin (72.7%) and tetracycline (81.8); also, some S. aureus also showed multi-drug resistance pattern. The present study, we isolated and determined the drug Resistance profile of S. aruesu in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia alarmingly, the S. aureus isolates circulating in the raw cow milk, fresh fruit juice and dairy milk. High level of S. aureus isolation from personnel and equipment besides food samples reveals that the hygiene practice is substandard. Prudent drug use and improved hygienic practice is recommended in the raw cow milk of dairy farms and fresh fruit juice to safeguard the public from the risk of acquiring infections and multiple drug resistance (MDR) pathogenic S.aureus.

  • Medical Microbiology
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Objective: To examine the impact of a maternity waiting home (MWH) by comparing pregnancy outcomes between users and non-users at hospitals with and without an MWH. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in Ethiopia comparing one hospital with an MWH (Attat) to a second hospital without one (Butajira). A structured questionnaire among sampled women in 2014 and hospital records from 2011 to 2014 were used to compare sociodemographic characteristics and pregnancy outcomes between Attat MWH users and non-MWH users, Attat MWH users and Butajira, and Attat non-MWH users and Butajira. χ2 or ORs with 95% CIs were calculated. Results: Compared with Attat non-MWH users (n=306) and Butajira women (n=153), Attat MWH users (n=244) were more often multiparous (multipara vs primigravida: OR 4.43 [95% CI 2.94 to 6.68] and OR 3.58 [95% CI 2.24 to 5.73]), less educated (no schooling vs secondary school: OR 2.62 [95% CI 1.53 to 4.46] and OR 5.21 [95% CI 2.83 to 9.61], primary vs secondary school: OR 4.84 [95% CI 2.84 to 8.25] and OR 5.19 [95% CI 2.91 to 9.27]), poor (poor vs wealthy: OR 8.94 [95% CI 5.13 to 15.61] and OR 12.34 [95% CI 6.78 to 22.44] and further from the hospital (2 h 27 min vs 1 h 00 min and 1 h 12 min: OR 3.08 [95% CI 2.50 to 3.80] and OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.78 to 2.67]). Comparing hospital records of Attat MWH users (n=2784) with Attat non-users (n=5423) and Butajira women (n=9472), maternal deaths were 0 vs 20 (0.4%; p=0.001) and 31 (0.3%; p=0.003), stillbirths 38 (1.4%) vs 393 (7.2%) (OR 0.18 [95% CI 0.13 to 0.25]) and 717 (7.6%) (OR 0.17 [95% CI 0.12 to 0.24]) and uterine ruptures 2 (0.1%) vs 40 (1.1%) (OR 0.05 [95% CI 0.01 to 0.19]) and 122 (1.8%) (OR 0.04 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.16]). No significant differences were found regarding maternal deaths and stillbirths between Attat non-users and Butajira women. Conclusions: Attat MWH users had less favourable sociodemographic characteristics but better birth outcomes than Attat non-users and Butajira women.

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

The outbreak infectious disease in human health can now be investigated to identify microbes or pathogen and carriers for control of infections. The process of this microbiome outbreak can be in stages which can be blocked by different defense mechanisms: host is exposed to infectious particle by an infected individual, the mode of transmission and stability of an infectious person outside the host determine its infectivity. Some pathogens such human immunodeficiency virus {HIV} are spread only by the exchange of bodily fluids, early contact of the microbes with a new host occur through an epithelia surface, the skin or the internal mucosal surface of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. The gut microbes in disease-inflammation microbial resident of the human gut are a major attributes in the development and maintenance of health but it differs from patient to patient. The causative agent falls into these: viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. These approaches are also transforming our understanding of how interaction and focus between the human microbiota and the host in order to provide an overview of the microbial role in basic biological processes and in the development and progression of major human diseases such as infectious disease, liver disease, gastrointestinal cancer. The purpose of this study is to check the role of microbes in health and disease and how the research can be applied to medicine and therapeutic target in clinical practice. these are exciting times for microbiology within molecular medicine.

Speaker
Biography:

Daphne Santhosh completed her PhD in the field of infectious neuroimmunology with emphasis on pneumococcal meningitis and neuronal stem cell proliferation after inflammatory damage. She has her Masters in Medical Microbiology from Manipal University, India and a Masters in Molecular Medicine from Trinity College,Ireland. She has worked on her dissertation as a research scholar at the Department of Biochemsitry, Royal College of Suregons in Ireland (RCSI)-activation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells following CD44 signaling during cancer metastasis. She has worked as a medical eduactor at Manipal University for 12 years and therafter taught Microbiolopgy and Immunology, Cell and Molecular Biology for 2 years at the American University of Antigua, Antigua and Barbuda. She is currently the Course director for Microbiology and Immunology at St. James School of Medicine, SVD. She has published more than 12 papers in peer-reviewed journals and is  a contributing member of the American Socitey for Microbiology (ASM) and a member of the International Association of Medical Science Educators (IAMSE).  

Abstract:

Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is an important  risk factor for gastritis and gastric carcinoma.  It is a gram-negative, flagellated, motile bacterium that adapts well to the acidic gastric environment by elucidating the enzyme urease which neutralizes the gastric pH, allowing the bacterium to adhere to the gastric mucosa causing infection and inflammation leading to peptic ulcers. However, other important factors are thought to be responsible, such as diet, and familial genetic predisposition. A study by Mard et.al. in 2014 showed adequate nutritional status, especially high consumption of fruits, vegetables, and vitamins appear to protect against the pathological consequences of H. Pylori infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of dietary consumption of starch  rich diet common to the island of St. Vincent and the Grenadines to H. Pylori. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between January and March of 2017. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed using food frequency questionnaire approved by the institutional research committee (IRC) of St. James School of Medicine along with informed/ signed consent from 200 willing participants. H.pylori infection status was diagnosed using the one-step H.pylori blood test kit (All Test TM, All Test Biotech Co. Ltd.). Among a sample size of 200 (n=200); 14.5% were were positive for H.pylori infection while 85.5% were negative. The data among the 14.5% were statistically insignificant between the sexes (males=16%) and (females=13%) (p>0.05). Among the eight variables, family history and incidence of H.pylori was in accordance with established data with 33% showing positive with family history Vs. 13% without; with a statistically significant data (p=0.031). A higher trend was noticed for complex carbohydrate consumption in H.pylori infected individuals but the data was statistically insignificant (p=0.63); but a larger sample size would have benefited the research towards the hypothesis. Among the food groups; starch, protein and vegetables were of higher consumption than other food groups but the data was statistically insignificant (p=0.61).

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is becoming a major problem in the treatment of many infectious diseases. Hence, there is need to find a potential alternative way by using medicinal plants in overcoming the antibiotic resistance. The present study was aimed at investigating antibacterial activity of Acetone extract of Acacia nilotica WILD. leaves against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates with multidrug property. Extract was prepared using acetone on the basis of increasing polarity with varying concentrations. Disc diffusion assay was employed to determine antibacterial activity. The acetone extract was found potent against all the selected bacterial pathogens. It portrays higher inhibition zones on S. aureus that ranged from 7mm to 11mm and least on P. aeruginosa with inhibition zones that ranged from 3mm to 8mm.. The results of the study revealed that, acetone leaf extract of Acacia contains some secondary metabolites that included saponins, alkaloids, tannins, phenols and steroids.  Acetone extract was further subjected to column and thin layer chromatography (TLC) for bioassay guided fractionation; thus a total of 77 fractions were obtained. These fractions were combined together based on their TLC profiles into ten (10) combined fractions (CF). The CFs were screened for the antibacterial activity, CF6 showed  highest zone of inhibition of 8mm and 4mm against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa respectively. Therefore this study ascertained the value of Acacia nilotica plant as alternative  treatment for bacterial infections that can be used to completely or minimize the resistance of bacteria observed in synthetic or commercial antibiotics drugs.

  • Young Research Forum
Speaker
Biography:

I have recently completed a Ph.D. degree in microbiology specializing in infectious diseases at Aix-Marseille University, France. I am very much interested in the field of gut microbiome research and antibiotic resistance. I have a dual competence as a pharmacist and microbiologist. I mainly worked in the exploration of the gut microbiota by culture and metagenomics and the implication of the digestive microbiota in metabolic diseases such as diabetes and in infectious diseases. Therefore, I have strong technical skills in the culture and identification of microorganisms, molecular biology techniques, and bioinformatics. I'm one of the pioneer students who worked on the microbial culturomics, a concept initiated by Prof. Didier RAOULT.

Abstract:

High salt intake has been linked to several diseases including obesity and an increased risk of death; however, fecal salinity and the ability of salt to alter the gut microbiota, which was recently identified as an instrumental factor for health and disease, remains poorly explored. We analyzed fecal samples of 1,326 human individuals for salinity and gut microbiota by culturomics and metagenomics. Geographical origin, age, gender, and obesity were tested as predictors of fecal salinity and halophilic diversity. All halophilic isolates were characterized by taxonogenomics and their genome sequenced. Fecal salinity was associated with obesity independently of geographical origin, gender, and age. The first 2 human-associated halophilic archaeal members were isolated along with 64 distinct halophilic species, including 21 new species and 41 known in the environment but not in humans. No halophiles grow in less than 1.5% salinity. Above this threshold, the richness of the halophilic microbiota was correlated with fecal salinity (r = 0.58, p < .0001). Metagenomics linked high fecal salinity to decreased diversity (linear regression, p < .035) and a depletion in anti-obesity Akkermansia muciniphila and Bifidobacterium, specifically B. longum and B. adolescentis. Genomics analysis suggested that halophilic microbes are not only transient passengers but may be residents of the human gut. High salt levels strongly alter the gut microbial ecosystem and are associated with the human halophilic microbiota, discovered in this study. Further studies should clarify if the gut microbiota alterations associated with high salt levels and the human halophilic microbiota could be causally related to human diseases, such as stomach cancer and obesity.
 

Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that can cause community acquired and hospital acquired infections. Development of antimicrobial resistance has limited treatment options against infections due to this pathogen. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus and associated factors among admitted patients and associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January, 2018 to January, 2019 to determine the prevalence of Meticillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus and associated risk factors Among Admitted Patients at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Result: A total of 364 Samples from patients suspected for Hospital Acquired bacterial infections were collected using convenient sampling method. Samples were cultured for S. aureus according to standard procedures. Isolates were tested for susceptibility to panels of 18 antimicrobial agents using disc diffusion assay. Susceptibility to methicillin was phenotypically determined based on sensitivity of isolates to cefoxitin and oxacillin. A total of 218(59.6%) S. aureus isolates were recovered from patients out of the 364 involved in the study.   The isolates were resistant to Cefoxitin 86 (23.6%), Clindamycin (49%), Pencillin (78.4%)), sulfometazole (42.3%), and Erythromycin (53.5%). Majority of the isolates (n=218, 59.6%) exhibited multi drug resistance. The overall burden of MRSA among the admitted patients were 23.6% (86). Duration of hospital staying length was statistically significant in the acquisitions of MRSA(Pvalue=0.02) where the mean staying length in the hospital was approximately 6 days. Conclusion: In conclusion, S. aureus isolates from patients in Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital exhibited resistance to antibiotics most commonly used for the treatment of staphylococcal infections. This calls for urgent need of prudent use of antimicrobial agents and prescription of antimicrobial agents should be based on drug susceptibility test and selection of antibiotic for prophylaxis needs careful consideration and screening of patients for MRSA carriage before admission is vital. Prescreening patients for MRSA carriage is should be vital before admission.

  • Microbes and agriculture

Session Introduction

Jared Odera

University of Eldoret, Kenya

Title: Intrinsic antibiotic resistance of salt and draught tolerant rhizobia bacteria
Speaker
Biography:

Jared 24yeras old from Kenya graduated from university of Eldoret in 2017 where he did a Bachelor of Science in microbiology. Before graduating He did a research project on the intrinsic antibiotic resistance of salt and drought tolerant rhizobia bacteria. He is particularly passionate about microbiology research innovation and access to most research activities. Jared was attached at Kenya bureau of standards where he acquired a lot of microbiology skills. 

Abstract:

Salt, drought and antibiotics secreted by rhizosphere microorganisms in the soil affects the ability of rhizobia to effectively modulate groundnut [legumes]. The objectives of this study were to (1) screen groundnut rhizobia for salt tolerance; (2) determine the performance of those salt tolerant rhizobia under drought stress and (3) evaluate the response of those salt and drought tolerant rhizobia to antibiotics. Seventeen groundnut rhizobia isolates were screened for salt and drought tolerance using sodium chloride salt at 0%,1%,3%,4% and 5% and polyethylene glycon[PEG] at 10%,20% and 30% respectively. Antibiotic resistance of those salt and drought tolerant rhizobia was screened using eight different types of antibiotics impregnated on the antibiotic disc. Groundnut rhizobia varied in response to salt stress. Isolates A01, A05, BIOFIX, D01, K01, F05 and G06 grew at 5% of Sodium chloride. , a total of seven isolates grew at 5%, Five of the salt tolerant rhizobia isolates  A01, A05, F04, F05 and BIOFIX grew on 30% concentration of PEG. Salt and drought tolerant rhizobia varied significantly in response to antibiotics. Five isolates A01, A05, G06, K01 and NO1 were resistant to Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin and Ceftriaxone. Phosphate solubilizing groundnut rhizobia showed variation in response to salt, drought and antibiotic stresses. The promising isolates that tolerated wide environmental stresses should be tested under greenhouse conditions to improve groundnut and other legumes production. Upon validation in the greenhouse they should be distributed to farmers as bio fertilizers.

  • Pharmaceutical Microbiology
Speaker
Biography:

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) are at greater risk for physical and mental health problems including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependency. On their own IPV, PTSD and alcohol dependency result   in significant personal, social and economic cost and the impact of all three may compound these costs. Researchers have reported that women with these experiences are more difficult to treat; many do not access treatment and those who do, frequently do not stay because of difficulty maintaining helping relationships. However, these women’s perspective has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the experience of seeking help for alcohol dependency by women with PTSD and a history of IPV in the context in which it occurs. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An inter subjective ethnographic study using hermeneutic dialogue was utilized during participant observation, in- depth interviews and focus groups. An ecological framework was utilized to focus on the interaction between the counselors and the staff to understand this relationship and the context in which it occurs. Findings: The women in this study were very active help seekers. They encountered many gaps in continuity of care including discharge because of relapse. Although the treatment center was a warm, healing and spiritual place, the women left the center without treatment for their trauma needs   and many without any referral to address these outstanding issues. Conclusion & Significance: Women with alcohol dependence and PTSD with a history of IPV want help however the health and social services do not always recognize their calls for help or their symptoms of distress. Recommendations are made for treatment centers to become trauma- informed that would help this recognition.

 

Speaker
Biography:

Prakash Kinthada is a Professor in Chemistry at Sri Vidyanikethan Engineering college, JNTU University in Ananthapur, A. Rangam Peta, Tirupathi, India

Abstract:

Cancer is a dreadful disease and any practical solution in combating this disease is of paramount importance to public health. Cancer patients have burdened by drug induced toxic side effects, and no turned to seek help from the complementary and alternative medicine hoping for a better cure. Research on Platinum based drugs and Non Platinum based drugs is a Multi-Million Dollar Industry in USA and there is every need to produce safe drugs for the cure of this monstrous disease. Flavonoids have a long history of use in traditional medicines in many cultures. The phytochemical, curcumin is one of the major dietary flavonoids, belonging to a group of flavanol, Curcumin is a natural polyphenol. It is highly potential molecule capable of preventing and treating various cancers.  Various dietary chemo preventive agents, turmeric powder or its extract are broadly used as therapeutic preparations in Indian System of medicine. We provide a summarized synthesis and structural determination of Curcumin Oxime, Curcumin Thiosemicarbazone derivative of Gold (III) complex. The use of these analogs for prevention of cancer tumor progression and treatments of human malignancies. A pharmacologic agent for treating and/or preventing cancer, among other diseases and conditions, and particularly breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer, in humans and animals. The novel pharmacologic agent is an isoflavonoid or isoflavonoid mimetic covalently attached to a cytotoxic pharmacophore that, preferably has the ability to conjugate with a metal salt to form a more potent metal complex, particularly a Au (III) complex and other complexes of Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc. My talk would mainly encompass different Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds   that are presently used as drugs, especially Anticancer and Anti-HIV drugs, apart from Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial and diseases like Arthritis and Parkinson’s Disease etc. The talk would mainly focus on the use of Medicinal Chemistry and its application to Drug Design and Development in Pharmaceutical Industry, especially    Transition Metal Complexes and Organometallic Compounds viz. Gold, Platinum, Palladium and Ruthenium apart from Copper, Cobalt, Iron, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium etc. The main emphasis of my talk would be on Different class of Ligands, their Schiff’s Bases and Transition Metal Complexes Especially Au, Pt, Pd and Ru, with the main aim of designing, developing very novel small molecules, as possible and extremely potential candidates as Anti-cancer and Anti-HIV drugs. The talk would provide an overview of current programs being undertaken in our laboratories, especially focused on the development of potent ligands capable of recognizing Binding sites and diverse strategies employed by my group for elucidation of Anti-Cancer and Anti-HIV drug Leads to Circumvent the problem caused by Cis-Platin. We have synthesized and characterized several phytochemicals from Traditional Medicinal Plants and isolated some phytochemicals and made the corresponding Oximes, Thiosemicarbazones and Substituted thiosemicarbazones as ligands and synthesized, characterized, structurally elucidated their Transition Metal Complexes especially with Gold, Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc. and Studied their Anticancer Activity, Nuclease activity etc. and tested their potential as Anticancer Drugs.